Saturday, 30 December 2017

Discuss A Tale of Two Cities as a Historical Novel

A historical novel deals with historical events. A Tale of Two Cities is a historical novel in the sense that it focuses on the period before and during the French Revolution. In the novel Dickens gives the picture of England and of France during the 1780s.

The novel takes place in England and France in 1775. The age is marked by competing and contradictory attitudes. In England, the public worries over religious prophecies, popular paranormal phenomena in the form of ‘the Cock-lane ghost’, and the messages that a colony of British subjects in America has sent to King George III. France, on the other hand, witnesses excessive spending and extreme violence, a trend that anticipates the erection of the guillotine. In both counties the poor were exploited by the rich. While there was light and hope for the aristocracy, there was darkness and despair for the insolvent. So, it was the best of time for the rich while the worst of time for the poor.

Saturday, 4 November 2017

Comment on Male-Female Relationships in Sylvia Plath’s Poetry?

There are two kinds of male-female relationships in Sylvia Plath’s poetry: those between fathers and daughters and between husbands and wives. Neither relationship seems to be happy. In ‘Lesbos’ the husbands are impotent, useless, deserving of scornful dismissal. They could be said of the potential husband s in ‘The Applicant’. But at least these men are not physically threatening, as the black demi-devil husbands in ‘Daddy’ most definitely is. Here the husband is sadistic torturer. The silent, silver suited husband who brings the sinister gift in ‘A Birthday Present’ is alarming too. He torments his wife in different, more subtle ways. Overall, heterosexual love relationships are problematic in Sylvia Plath’s poems. Even when she writes excitedly about being pursued by a lover, there is a strong current of violence running through the poem, ‘Pursuit’, a suggestion that the female is the victim, the bait. She will be eaten up worn out, cast aside.

Discuss the Theme of Motherhood in the Poetry of Sylvia Plath with Special Reference to ‘Morning Song’.

A number of poems of Sylvia Plath deal with mothering. Sylvia Plath is not sentimental about motherhood. It is not an unambiguously blessed state in her work. The most obvious positive statement about children is ‘you’re’, which can be read as a celebration of pregnancy. Here Sylvia Plath captures the affection and eagerness of the expectant mother. ‘You’re’ and ‘Morning Song’ suggest that Sylvia Plath saw babies as unique, individual personalities; the child is never simply an extension of the mother in her poetry. She observes babies closely, showing us the wonder of new life through her use of unusual and unexpected metaphors and similes to describe infants.

‘Morning Song’ was written by Sylvia Plath after the birth of her first child, ‘Frieda’. She intended that it should be the first poem published in the ‘Ariel’ collection. The tone is different from the cheerful mood of ‘you’re’, although the poet continues to explore feelings and ideas about motherhood that are familiar from the earlier poem.

Critically Comment on Yeats’s Use of Symbol.

Yeats’ poetry is replete with symbols. He has been called “the chief representative” of the Symbolist Movement in English literature. Indeed Yeats uses innumerable symbols. Often he coins symbols from his study of the occult, Irish folklore and mythology, philosophy, which are generally unfamiliar to the readers.It is true that French Symbolist Movement has a great impact on Yeats.

Yeats makes use of a complex system of symbols in his poems. In Yeats’ poetry generally symbols are of two kinds; the traditional and the personal as his repeated symbol of “Rose”. It is both a traditional as well as a personal symbol. The ‘rose’ in Yeats’ poem is generally used to mean earthly love but in “The Rose of the World” it also symbolizes eternal love and beauty. In “The Rose of Battle” the rose is a refuge from earthly love. The symbol, thus, becomes complex and has to be read carefully in the context in which it is used.

Show How Yeats’ Treatment of History and Myth in His Poetry.

Yeats was greatly enthused by the charm of myth and used it in numerous poems to reveal his complex philosophical understandings.  Yeats was keen to replace traditional Greek and Roman mythological figures with figures from Irish folk lore. The juxtaposition of the Greek and the Irish myths, and his enthusiasm for old and modern philosophy has distinguished his poems from his contemporaries. The following discussion hinges round Yeats’ handling of myth, philosophy, and history along with a critical inquiry into some of his major poems.

Comment on the Treatment of Childhood in the ‘Poem in October’.

Dylan Thomas has special fascination for childhood. He has written a number of poems on childhood and ‘Poem in October’ is one of them. Dylan resembles Wordsworth and William Blake in his attitude to childhood. Wordsworth sees a child from a distance and laments the fact that he can no longer see the heavenly radiance around the objects of nature as he had seen in his childhood. But Dylan like Blake becomes a child himself through imagination and can see and enjoy the beauty of nature through the eyes of a child.

Discuss the Use of Symbols in the Poetry of Dylan Thomas.

Dylan Thomas makes extensive use of natural, conventional and private symbols to convey complex psychological states to his readers. He draws symbols from different branches of sciences, philosophies, myths, legends, literature, history, occult knowledge, Bible etc.

What does the Forest Represent In Story Young Goodman Brown

In Young Goodman Brown, the forest has several symbolic dimensions. Hawthorne leaves us in no doubt that the forest represents the principle and practice of evil. Brown’s experience is derived from an internalized sin. He well understood that his mission was evil, and his acts impure, yet was surprised to find others whom he reverenced following the same path. His journey to the forest is symbolic of Christian “self-exploration” in which doubt immediately supplants faith. The forest also represents the wild New World that was something to fear. Goodman Brown, like other puritans associate the forest with the wild “Indian” and see one hiding behind every tree. He believes that the devil could easily be present in such a place. Hawthorne also depicts the forest as the Garden of Eden. Goodman Brown appears to represent human beings confronted with his temptation-that is, he wishes to enter the dark forest of sin to satisfy his curiosity about the happenings there and perhaps even to take part in them. The man who meets brown in the forest appears to represent the devil. Goodman Brown is enticed by an entire forest. Like Adam, he suffers a great fall from innocence. Likewise, the dark forest is associated with danger, obscurity, confusion, and unknown or with evil, sin, and death as primordial symbol.

Describe Beloved as an Allegorical Figure

Beloved is the dead baby daughter of Sethe, whom Sethe kills to save her from being taken by the slave owner. As Sethe loves her child, she cannot let her suffer by being a slave. This dead baby comes back to Sethe’s life, in the house 124 bluestone, but as the form of spirit.

How Does Hemingway Show that Jake is Insecure about His Masculinity Early in the Novel?

Jake does not mention his insecurities directly. We must search for information about them in his reactions and descriptions of others. Jake takes a condescending attitude towards Chon. His description cast Chon as a weak, inexperienced man. Jake’s contempt seems to arise partly from Cohn’s feminized status. He characterized Cohn as timid and easily controlled by a strong woman like Frances. This emphasis on Cohn’s lack of masculinity can be seen as a reflection of Jake’s own insecurities about his manhood. Also, Jake resent the group of male friends with whom Brett dances at the club. His statements about them subtly imply that they are homosexuals. Brett can safely get drunk around them, for instance, because they have no interest in having sex with her. Jake realizes that he should be tolerant, but admits that he is, in fact, disgusted by them. His irrational disgust likely stems from his perception of them as unmanly, illustrating his worries about his own manliness. Thus Hemingway uses Jake’s contempt for Cohn’s feeble masculinity and his reaction of abhorrence towards Brett’s homosexual friends to reveal his anxiety about his own masculinity.

Friday, 27 October 2017

Discuss The Hairy Ape as a Social Satire.

Literature of all types during the last sixty years has dealt with social problems. Social protest has been the moving spirit in literature since the days of Zola. In The Hairy Ape O'Neill reveals himself in sympathy with this tradition, with the one difference that he is not dealing with the condemnation of a particular political order. His problem is the deeper one of the psychological implications of the machine age. His predecessors might have shown how Yank lost his job and finally through starvation was led to crime to support himself and family, or some similar theme. But it should be remembered that Yank's problem was not loss of work. He could have had all the work he wanted. Furthermore, O'Neill does not appeal to the emotions by having Yank lose a sweetheart, mother, or children. Yank is alone as far as any family connections are concerned. It is not work that Yank is seeking. What Yank wants is to know that he "belongs." He wants to find out what it is that has happened to the world which separates him from the realization that what he is doing is a necessary and a fitting part of the life of the world.

What is the Significance of the Title of The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway?

The title of Ernest Hemingway's first book is The Sun Also Rises, which comes from a verse in the Bible. The title is an apt depiction both of the despair of the Lost Generation of which Hemingway was a part as well as the potential for optimism in the perpetual rising of the sun. 

The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem. Vanity of vanities, faith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity. What profit hath a man of all his labour which he taketh under the sun? One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abidethfor ever. The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose. The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits. All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full.

Toni Morrison’s Beloved Portrays an Institutionalized Dehumanization of the Slaves. Elucidate.

Toni Morrison’s Beloved explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual devastation wrought by slavery, a devastation that continue to haunt those characters who are former slaves even in freedom. The most dangerous of slavery’s effect is its negative impact on the former slave’s sense of self, and the novel contains multiple examples of self-alienation. Paul D, for instance, is so alienated from himself that at one point he cannot tell whether the screaming he hears is his own or someone else’s. Slaves were told they were subhuman and were traded as commodities whose worth could be expressed in dollars. Consequently, Paul D is very insecure about whether or not he could possibly be a real “man,” and he frequently wonders about hos value as a person.

Discuss in the Light of Your Reading of Beloved by Toni Morrison.

Is Sethe’s Murder of Her Own Child Justified?


It is a universal truth that every mother loves her child more than herself. It is shocking to hear that a mother has killed her own child. The question which arises in our mind—is how is this possible? If we go through the story of the novel Toni Morrison's Beloved, then it becomes clear to us why and under what situation Sethe murdered her daughter. Although it is not justified to take anyone’s life, we cannot hold Sethe guilty in this regard. The physical abuse which she got from her owner was responsible for her mental trauma. Slavery took joy from her life and gave only unbearable pain. She tried to escape from her horrible life with her children. When she was caught, she killed her daughter for saving her from being a slave and thus leading a miserable life. She thought that dying was better than being a slave. If we go through her tragic life at Sweet Home, we can say that she was justified to kill her own child.

To What Extent is The Sun Also Rises a Fictional Chronicle of a “Lost Generation”?

Basically, the phrase describes the generation that came to maturity during World War I and describes the cumulative effect of the new kind of warfare on that generation. The technology involved in modern warfare also created carnage on a scale that had never been seen before. The sheer amount of death and destruction from WWI led people to question the meaning of life.

Sketch the Character of Goodman Brown?

What idea have you formed about the character of Goodman Brown


Young Goodman Brown is a character that undergoes many changes throughout the story. He is very much influenced by the events that unfold in the woods that night. He is also changed by the characters around him, or rather his knowledge of their hidden sins.

In the beginning of the tale, Goodman Brown seems to be happy with his life. He has a lovely young wife and claims, “I’ll cling to her skirts and follow her to Heaven.” “We have been a race of honest men and good Christians,” he says of his father’s before him. He respects his elders and is devoted to his religion, like most Puritans during this time period. When he first ventured into the woods he kept insisting it was time to return home.

Discuss ‘Young Goodman Brown’ as an Allegorical Story.

An allegory is a work of fiction in which the symbols, characters, and events come to represent some aspect of its culture. In American literature, allegories have often been used for instructive purposes around Christian themes.  The story has a figurative meaning beneath the literal one: a story with two meanings.  In American literature, the best example of an allegory is “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The story centers on the loss of innocence.

How has Saul Bellow Depicted American Life and Society in Seize the Day?

Saul Bellow has depicted the American life and society as rootless, fraudulence and relation less among the population and financial gambler.

At first we get footlessness’ in American society in which Tommy Wilhem is a man in his mid- forties, temporarily living in the Hotel Gloriana on the Upper West Side of New York City, the same hotel in which his father has taken residence for a number of years. He is out of place from the beginning, living in a hotel filled with elderly retirees and continuing throughout the novel to be a figure of isolation amidst crowds. The novella traverses one very important day in the life of this self- same Tommy Wilhelm: his “day of reckoning” so to speak.

Analyse the Theme of Identity and Isolation the ‘The Hairy Ape’.

Eugene O’Neill, the Nobel winner dramatist and the Shakespeare of America, has exposed in ‘The Hairy Ape’ man’s eternal quest for identity. O'Neill moves his hero Yank, through a series of rapidly changing scenes in his quest to belong, to find his place in the universe. Alienation and search for identity is the basic theme in The Hairy Ape.

In the beginning of the drama Yank feels that he is satisfied with his condition of life as a stoker in a large ship. Yank says that ship is everything to him and he belongs to ship. He is satisfied with the present, and is proud of his ability and strength. He asserts that it is his energy on which the ship and the passengers ultimately depend.

Saturday, 30 September 2017

How Can the Poem “Wild Nights-Wild Nights” be Regarded as a Poem of Mystic Experience?



The poem “Wild Nights- Wild Nights” apparently reads like a poem of sexual pleasures enjoyed with lover during nights. The poet says if she were with her lover, the wild nights would be a luxury. The wild nights would be a luxury means the poet will enjoy unbounded sexual pleasures with her lover during nights. On reading the poem, the first thing that occurs to a reader is this unbounded enjoyment. But is one level at which the poem can be interpreted in the way- in the way of sexual enjoyment. But it can be interpreted at another level at which it can be seen as a description of mystic experience- experience of the pleasures of union with God. The mystic experience of the famous mystic have been described in terms of worldly pleasures like pleasures from drinking wine, or pleasures from sexual enjoyment. The poet of “Wild Nights- Wild Nights” may have tried to express her mystic experience through the medium of the description of sexual pleasures to an extent of unboundness. From that point of view, the expression “Were I with thee”, means if she were with God, and “wild nights” should be/ our luxury” means the poet’s experiences of intense pleasures in the company of God. The poem therefore has religious significance since mysticism is a term of religious connotations, having relation with God, and experience of God’s company.

Discuss Langston Hughes as an Anti-Racialist.



Racism or racialism is any action, practice, or belief that reflects the racial worldview-the ideology that humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called “races”, that there is a casual link between inherited physical traits and traits of personality, intellect, morality, and other cultural behavioral features, and that some races are innately superior to others. Racism was at the heart of North American slavery and the overseas colonization and empire-building activities of some western Europeans, especially in the 18th century.

Do You Find the Use of Any Symbol in Whitman’s Poem “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d”?



A symbol is anything that signifies or stands for something else. In this sense all words are symbol. Symbol may be public or conventional or private. “The cross”, “the red” etc are public or conventional symbols they signify objects of which the further significance is fixed and traditional in a particular culture. Private symbol are those whose significance the writers generate for themselves, and the readers are in difficulty in understanding them.

Friday, 29 September 2017

Pain and Suffering and Growth are One of the Prominent Themes of Dickinson’s Poetry.



Dickinson’s poetic world is permeated with pain and suffering and the struggle to evade, face, overcome and wrest meaning from it, or growing from it. Suffering is central to her poetic faith, and it is involved in the creative processes as well. It is part of her ambivalent response to the mysteries of time and nature. Suffering plays a major role in her poems on suffering. Her poems on the subjects of suffering and growth can be divided into three groups: (1) poems that focus on deprivation as a cause of suffering, (2) those dealing with suffering bring compensatory rewards or spiritual growth.

Discuss Dickinson’s Attitude Towards Life and Love



Attitude to life is a very comprehensive term which encompasses a great many aspects of life. Life consists of not a few elements, but almost an infinite variety of things. However, a poet usually does have some attitude towards life which in his/her case may mean he/she highlights some particular aspect of life – not too many, of course. In the case of Emily Dickinson we find that she has highlighted some important aspects of life - friendship, society, pain and suffering and growth in life, and the most potent factor of life, that is love.

Depict the Theme of Alienation in the Poems of Robert Frost.



The theme of isolation or alienation is a recurrent one in Frost’s poems. In Frost’ poetry we frequently find man isolated or alienated from his immediate environment. Even Nature appears extraneous to man’s physical existence. Man is isolated from other men from a sense of fear. Man is isolated in space from the stars and the sky. He is isolated from God and even from himself, that is, from his own self. Women’s isolation or alienation seems harder than men’s. According to Frost’s vision of life it is man’s lot to be alienated from all the other things and beings of the universe and destined to live alone, live a lonely existence.

Do You Think Frost Was a Modern Poet?



In spite of the Pastoral element predominant in Frost’s poems, he is still a modern poet because his poetry has been endowed with the awareness of the problems of man living in the modern world dominated by Science and Technology.

Critics have a difference of opinion over considering him a modern poet. Frost is a pastoral poet – poet of pastures and plains, mountains and rivers, woods and gardens, groves and bowers, fruits and flowers, and seeds and birds. They do not treat such characteristically modern subjects as ‘the boredom implicit in sensuality’, ‘the consciousness of neuroses’ and ‘the feeling of damnation’.  Cleanth Brooks says: Frost’s best poetry exhibits the structure of symbolic metaphysical poetry. Much more clearly than does of many a modern poet.

Evaluate Frost as a Poet of Nature.



We can form an idea of Frost as a poet of Nature from a study of the characteristics of his poetry. He can be called a poet of Nature though not in the sense that Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats were poets of Nature. He possessed an attitude to Nature entirely different from theirs, though on the surface he resembled them to a great extent.

Discuss How Whitman Has Used Imagery in His Poems



Whitman’s poetry contains a profusion of images and it is truly perceived in almost any of his poems. Imagery means the use of images or pictures in words to describe ideas or situations. An image is something that can be perceived through one or more senses-sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch, the sense of motion or the sense of heat or cold. Imagery is the pictorial quality of a literary work achieved through a collection of images. It evokes a complex of emotional suggestions and communicates mood, tone and meaning.

Do you Consider Walt Whitman as a Modern Poet?



The American Civil War proved a turning point in her political and literary history. After that, the American nation ushered in a new era of modern reconstruction. The American literature during this period flourished in a fresh and free atmosphere. Some of the writers broke away from the traditions of the past and emerged as modern writers. Walt Whitman was one of them; he sang of the American nation and American people in his poetry. He brought about some innovations in the poetic art and technique which characterize him as a modern poet.

How Troilus Wins the Love of Criseyde?



Troilus visit to the temple in the ceremony marked a serious change in his attitude to women and love. His love at the first sight was one-sided and he had to sorrow bitterly for her love, Pandarus, 'Troilus’ trusted friend and Criseyde s uncle comforted him by the promise of aid in the suit. By applying all his techniques, Pandarus induced Criseyde to return his love for his heroism and Criseyde took pity for his love-sorrow on her account. 

Difference Between Achilles and Agamemnon



Achilles and Agamemnon are two epic characters. Both the characters have their distinct features and both of them are considered very strong.

Achilles is considered to be the central character of Homer’s Iliad. Achilles has been described as the strongest man and his fathers was god and mother a mortal being. He became almost immortal after he was bathed in Styx River. The only part that could be injured was his heel.

Why Does Phaedra Say ‘Unreason Drives Me Into Evil’?



Phaedra explains to the Nurse that she has been able to dig into the root of her trouble. She thinks that it is all due to the long absence of her husband. Theseus has gone down to the underworld for a wrong purpose. He has gone to help his friend Peirithous to abduct Persephone. She believes that her husband has gone there with an evil purpose, to seek lust and unlawful marriage. This is how he has broken his marriage vow.

Whom did Aristophanes Patronize Euripides or Aeschylus?



Aeschylus guided the growth and development of tragedy and exerted a great influence on the Greek drama. He represented and faced the conflicting forces quite boldly. Before Aeschylus the chorus occupied an important place. Narratives were addressed to 

What is the Significance of The Frogs as a Comedy?



In ancient Greece there were great writers of tragedy. The most eminent among them were Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. In writing comedies Aristophanes stood out prominently. His Frogs is a remarkable Comedy. His purpose was social reform and in this sense, he was a social reformer. He was a comic poet and not a political propagandist. He was like a teacher and concerned with the well-being of Athens as well as the welfare of her people. He was a seeker of truth and a true patriot. His comedy The Frogs has stood the test of the time. Aristophanes was neither a rationalist, nor a septic. In this play he upheld the cult of Dionysus was the hero who went to the Hades to find out a great tragic dramatist who was then dead.

How Did Medea Change Herself to Reach Her Goal?



Euripides has begun Medea only after Jason’s betrayal. We can have a glimpse of Medea as a blushing maiden. She has been described as an unsophisticated maiden who has found her ideal man in Jason. But his betrayal brings about a complete change in her. She becomes firmly determined to avenge the dishonor and teach him a lesson. She is lamenting and cursing behind the veil. She changes into a distraught woman with Ms. Consult with the writer lips, and blood-shot eyes. We can easily realize that a terrible storm is raging within. Medea in her suffering transcends the personal level and becomes the symbol of the suffering women of all ages and climes.

How did Medea and Jason React to the Killing of Glauce and Creon?



Medea adopted some artful measures to get rid of Glauce and Creon. She asked her children to present a robe and a golden importunity compelled her to accept the gifts and she was immediately consumed by poison. Creon in a bid to save his daughter burnt himself to death.

“Is Medea a Wife Only, or Also a Mother” Discuss.



Medea was the Daughter of a king of Colchis which was a land of magic and enchantment. She was a sorceress, but at the same time was a symbol of maiden purity. She fell in love with Jason and subordinated everything to her love and passion. Jason, her husband, came across Glauce, the daughter of Creon, and secretly married her. It was a bitter betrayal and treachery which was a rude shock to her. Medea became furious and determined to take revenge on her husband.

What for did Medea Kill Her Own Children?



Medea was not only a wife but also a mother. Though a barbarian, she loved deeply her children. Medea loved her children as much as any mother of the civilized races did. Now her love of the children had been turned into the bitterest hatred. It was not hatred for the children but for their father. She hated her children, and seeing them felt no joy. The servants had a misgiving that the children might be slain. She had often turned her wild and blood-thirsty eyes upon them. So the Nurses as well as the servants advised them not to go in the presence of their mother. We hear the lamentations of Medea from within. As soon as she saw her children, she flared up. She sought to destroy the children only with the father and the whole race. She excited a feeling of horror and our pity and sympathy as well. Medea was a wronged mother and wife. She killed the children only to rend Jason’s heart which would prove fatal to him. He failed to save them and it was a terrible wound to his heart. He could never forget it which would be a long suffering to him.

“Medea is More Sinned Against Than Sinning” – Justify the Statement.



Medea appears to be the mouthpiece of the oppressed women. She has given expression to her feelings very passionately. Euripides’ treatment of his subject irritates the simple man in two ways. He made his characters half-good and half-bad. He made a point of studying his characters sympathetically. Many regions of thought and character were exposed.

Bring out the Significance of the Episode of the Red Carpet in Aeschylus’ play Agamemnon.



The Red Carpet plays a very significant role in Aeschylus’ play, Agamemnon. Agamemnon was the supreme commander of the Greek which besieged and destroyed troy. He was a great warrior and was enriched in exceptionally good qualities. At the same time he had many weaknesses. His besetting sin was his ‘hubris’ or pride. This evidently is one of the seven deadly sins from the point of view of the ancient Greeks.

Short Note on Homeric Similes.



Simile is a comparison between two different things dissimilar to each other. This similarity is shown with such words ‘as’ and ‘like’. Homeric similes are elaborate, point by point comparisons, giving an impression of magnificence. Homer has drawn his materials from the direct observation of life and nature around him. Besides, Homeric similes are strikingly picturesque. At times Homeric similes provide relief as well as suspense. For example Athens diverting an arrow aimed at Menelaus is compared to a mother. For describing a humble life a simile has great importance. These similes take us far away from strife-torn battle grounds to the humble life. A few similes relating to humble life are as a woman colors a piece of ivory for a bridle, a child makes castle of sand, diver dips into the water for Oysters carpenters building ships and so on. Lastly Homer’s similes are remarkable for this richness.

Discuss the Involvement of Patroclus in Trojan War.



Patroclus is a minor Character in The Iliad. However, he is the most intimate friend of Achilles. We rarely see Patroclus as an individual. But he alone can churn the emotion of Achilles. The death of Patroclus has brought in a sea change in the entire episode. So long Achilles is watching the war like a silent spectator. But the death of Patroclus brings about vital change. Achilles realizes that his inaction is responsible for his friend’s death. He wants to appease his fury by punishing Trojans, particularly venting his ire on Hector. After the death of Patroclus, Achilles realizes for the first time that glory is no longer a matter of individual satisfaction. After the death of Patroclus his dearest friend, he admits, ‘destiny for us both to stain the same Soil’. Now Achilles is able to accept his own morality.