Nausea is a novel by the existentialist philosopher Jean Paul Sartre. This novel fictionalizes Sartrean brand of existentialism. It represents a world without god or meaning. It discovers the meaninglessness of existence through an enquiry into the perceptual understanding of the universe. Based on these observations, we shall attempt to reveal how Sartre's Nausea combines phenomenology and existentialism.
Wednesday, 14 February 2018
The struggle between good and evil is the central theme of the central theme of the Lord of the Flies. This theme has been presented through the conflicts between the conch group and the savages, between the boys and the terrifying 'beast' and between rescue from a passing ship and imprisonment on the increasingly insane island. But the major conflict between good and evil lies in the bitter struggle between Ralph and Jack for power and leadership on the island.
The mock-hunts in Lord of the Flies are symbols of primitivism and barbarism. The mock- hunt begins as a pure sport for the sake of fun but gradually it turns into savagery and cruelty. There are three mock hunts in the novel.
Hemingway character or code hero himself would never speak of a code. He is a man of action rather than a man of theory. We call him the code hero because he represent a code according to which the hero, by observing it, would be able to live properly in the world of violence, disorder, and misery to which he has been introduced and which he inhabits. The code hero thus offers certain principles of honor, courage and endurance which in a life of tension and pain make a man a man and enable him to conduct himself well in the losing battle-that is life. Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea is the code hero at his best.
Literally The Old Man and the Sea is a story of an old fisherman's single-handed fight with a huge fight in the Gulf Stream north of Havana, but it has various allegorical interpretations. First it may be regarded as a Christian allegory. It has also been treated as an allegory of an artist's struggle with his material. But the story may be seen as an epic metaphor for life. Human life is here depicted as a struggle against the unconquerable forces of the world, in which a kind of victory is nevertheless possible. Hemingway portrays here Santiago, a simple old fisherman who is capable of an extraordinary dignity and heroism by means of which he wins a moral victory, even though he faces a heartbreaking defeat.
According to Stanley Wood, Jaqus is a bundle of inconsistencies. He is a mixture of ‘witty sensibility and merry sadness’. He is a child of folly and a professor of wisdom. At one moment he loves his melancholy better than his laughing, but at another moment, he laughs ‘sans intermission an hour by his dial’. At one time he seeks society; at another he avoids the company of man. He has been sensual in his youth and has exhausted all the pleasures of the artificial life of the court. He is a man of lively imagination and artistic temperament. Being deceived in his intercourse with man, he turns from the vanities of the court to seek comfort and consolation in nature and solitude. But he cannot change his nature. He has not within him the spirit of reverence and contentment to lead him to true happiness. Thus, he is a bundle of inconsistencies.
The marriage scene, in addition to contrasting the Duchess’s vivid personality with Antonio’s rather passive one, foreshadows the tragedy to come. It opens with the Duchess telling Antonio she wants to write her will, immediately evoking the thought of death. The Duchess’s metaphors and allusions, too, often invoke death she is into an alabaster statue kneeling a her husband’s tomb; she refers to her marriage to Antonio as a Gordian knot, a knot that could not be untied unless cut with “violence”; and she says they can put an unsheathed sword between them in bed to keep them chaste, which introduces a weapon into their intimacy. Thus while this end of the act is largely happy, Webster gives the audience plenty of warning that such happiness will not last. The contradictions in the Duchess’s character between her valiant refusal to bow before social mores and her willfulness on directly and imprudently countering the protestations of her brothers are summarized in Cariola’s final soliloquy, which questions whether the Duchess is a model of greatness or simply a madwoman.